Initial Exchange Offerings (IEOs) is a brand new feature of 2019. Similar to ICO however, the main difference between them is that IEO only works through token exchange and provides better vetting and backing. Many investors believe that this model is more secure and better regulated; it also allows investors to buy and sell tokens instantly.
Bitcoin ETF is an exchange fund that will use Bitcoin as a base asset and sell its shares to investors, who therefore will be able to benefit from the changing course of the coin. Moreover, ETF will be better protected from hackers, as it will not work directly with digital money. It is believed, that the approval of Bitcoin ETF by the US SEC will attract more investors, who used to avoid investing in cryptocurrency due to security and regulatory issues. However, the topic still remains quite controversial, as some investors fear, that this model will create a market bubble.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is a new financial system that is built on public blockchains (like Bitcoin and Etherum) including stable coin, collateralized lending system, prediction markets, and much more. The main goal is to simplify access to various financial services all over the world. Besides that, by decreasing remittance fees below 3%, DeFi makes cross-border payments more affordable. It is also said to be better managed and secured, to ensure investors asset protection. Finally, since investments in this project keep on growing, DeFi is an exciting sector to watch.